Tier 2
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Tier 2

Tier 2

KU Leuven uses a central identity management platform to manage the accounts of its 32k employees and 115k students (up to 500k accounts known irrespective of access rights). Most of the web applications can be accessed via a central login system, which authenticates the user and communicates their identity and access rights to the web application. Recently KU Leuven introduced a strong authentication method named "KU Leuven authenticator" based on n-Auth technology. We challenge you to find the bugs in our IAM system! If you find any, we will be more than happy to pay the bounty!

In scope

The scope of this project is currently limited to the identity & access management system of KU Leuven.

We are particularly interested in, but not limited to, ways to exploit our system using:

  • Horizontal or vertical privilege escalation
  • Authentication bypass methods
  • Exploits that facilitate credential theft

If you register a KU Leuven account, only accounts with your email address are allowed.

For now, only the identity & access management systems are in scope:

In order to initiate a login session you may use two applications.
Bugs that go beyond the login process of the applications, e.g. application specific vulnerabilities, are out-of-scope for now:

You may link your KU Leuven authenticator to your account via
Registration is for privileged users only, you can request for permission via e-mail ( with subject "Intigriti KU Leuven Authenticator request".

Users who do not have a supported device (Android as of version 4.1 or iOS as of version 10) can alternatively sign up for SMS authentication.

KU Leuven authenticator can be used as the only authentication method, without using passwords, because passwords are so '90s :)

Out scope


  • Self-XSS that cannot be used to exploit other users
  • Verbose messages/files/directory listings without disclosing any sensitive information
  • CORS misconfiguration on non sensitive endpoints
  • Missing cookie flags on non sensitive cookies
  • Missing security headers which do not present an immediate security vulnerability
  • Cross-site Request Forgery with no or low impact
  • Presence of autocomplete attribute on web forms.
  • Reverse tabnabbing
  • Bypassing rate-limits or the non-existence of rate-limits.
  • Best practices violations (password complexity, expiration, re-use, etc.)
  • Clickjacking on pages without sensitive actions
  • CSV Injection
  • Host Header Injection
  • Sessions not being invalidated (logout, enabling 2FA, ..)
  • Hyperlink injection/takeovers
  • Mixed content type issues
  • Cross-domain referer leakage
  • Anything related to email spoofing, SPF, DMARC or DKIM
  • Content injection
  • Username / email enumeration
  • E-mail bombing
  • HTTP Request smuggling without any proven impact
  • Homograph attacks
  • XMLRPC enabled
  • Banner grabbing /Version disclosure
  • Open ports without an accompanying proof-of-concept demonstrating vulnerability
  • Weak SSL configurations and SSL/TLS scan reports
  • Not stripping metadata of images
  • Disclosing API keys without proven impact
  • Subdomain Takeover
  • Abuse of KU Leuven authenticator / n-Auth on a rooted or jailed device


  • In case that a reported vulnerability was already known to the company from their own tests, it will be flagged as a duplicate.
  • Theoretical security issues with no realistic exploit scenario(s) or attack surfaces, or issues that would require complex end user interactions to be exploited, may be excluded or be lowered in severity
  • Spam, social engineering and physical intrusion
  • DoS/DDoS attacks or brute force attacks.
  • Vulnerabilities that are limited to non-current browsers (older than 3 versions) will not be accepted
  • Attacks requiring the usage of shared computers, man in the middle or compromised user accounts
  • Recently disclosed zero-day vulnerabilities in commercial products where no patch or a recent patch (< 2 weeks) is available. We need time to patch our systems just like everyone else - please give us 2 weeks before reporting these types of issues.
  • Attacks requiring unrealistic user interaction
Rules of engagement


  • Write your report in Dutch or English.
  • Describe the problem in sufficient detail and include the necessary evidence, such as IP addresses, log entries, screenshots, etc.
  • Provide detailed but to-the-point reproduction steps
  • Include a clear attack scenario; a step by step guide in the PoC is highly appreciated
  • Remember: quality over quantity!
  • Only notify the ICTS department of KU Leuven of your findings, and only via this procedure. Do not publish details about the security issue through other channels. Making the problem known through other channels or the media, even before or after notifying KU Leuven via this procedure and even when not all details are provided, will be considered irresponsible behavior and can still lead to the filing of criminal charges.
  • Do not exploit the identified leak: only collect the information necessary to demonstrate its existence.
  • Do not change or delete any data or system settings.
  • Handle any found data in a responsible manner: if you can demonstrate that there is a security problem with a small portion, do not go any further
  • Please do NOT discuss bugs before they are fixed
  • You can register via our self registration, but only with your mail address.

Our Promise

  • If we require additional information, we may choose to contact you, if possible.
  • We will do everything possible to resolve any shortcomings as quickly as possible, and we will keep you posted.

Safe harbour for researchers

KU Leuven considers ethical hacking activities conducted consistent with the Researcher Guidelines, the Program description and restrictions (the Terms) to constitute “authorized” conduct under criminal law. KU Leuven will not pursue civil action or initiate a complaint for accidental, good faith violations, nor will they file a complaint for circumventing technological measures used by us to protect the scope as part of your ethical hacking activities.

If legal action is initiated by a third party against you and you have complied with the Terms, KU Leuven will take steps to make it known that your actions were conducted in compliance and with our approval.

Severity assessment

It will be the responsibility of intigriti to pay ethical hackers in a timely and legal way. Payouts will only take place after agreement with KU Leuven on the criticality of the impact and only if the submission was the first of its kind and agreed to be valid.

Examples of exceptional vulnerabilities:

  • Remote code execution
  • Access to the underlying infrastructure

Examples of critical vulnerabilities:

  • Acquire sensitive data of our users
  • Full database access
  • Vertical privilege escalation
  • Access to all user data or access to a targeted user
  • Data loss

Examples of high severity vulnerabilities:

  • Access to data of random users
  • Stored cross-site scripting
  • Impersonation of other user (1 user per time)

Examples of medium severity vulnerabilities:

  • Reflected cross-site scripting with low or no user interaction
  • Stored cross-site scripting that requires a lot of user interaction

Examples of low severity vulnerabilities:

  • Stack trace information
  • Open redirects - 99% of open redirect issues have low security impact. For the rare cases with higher security impact, like stealing sensitive data (customer records…) or introducing XSS, we do still want to hear about them.
  • Self-XSS
  • Cross-site request forgery (CSRF) with minimal security implications (Logout CSRF, etc.) Only create/update and delete actions are interesting.
  • Missing cookie flags on non-security sensitive cookies

Can we create test accounts?

Yes you can create an account via our self registration, but only with your mail address.

How long does it take to fix a vulnerability?

Our goal is to implement a fix as soon as possible. Depending on the criticality and the affected system it can take up to multiple months to implement a fix.

All aboard!
Please login or register on the platform

For obvious reasons we can only allow submissions or applications for our program with a valid intigriti account.

It will only take 2 minutes to create a new one or even less to login with an existing account, so don't hesitate and let's get started. We would be thrilled to have you as part of our community.

Program specifics
ID check required
Reputation points
created a submission
KU Leuven
closed a submission
created a submission
KU Leuven
closed a submission
created a submission
KU Leuven
closed a submission
created a submission
KU Leuven
changed the out scope
KU Leuven
changed the severity assessment
KU Leuven
changed the rules of engagement